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Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Arabia up to 1600 meters elevation.
Single trunked/clumping palm; on old specimens, trunks can can be prostrate. Very stiff, thick, leathery, forward held leaves, often with a bluish tinge, and with spiky tips. Highly variable.
Threatened in its native habitat, where the leaves are used for basket making.
Full sun, well drained position. Extremely hardy, tolerates severe drought conditions, as well as extremes of cold and heat.
Rolf Kyburz, (Figure 1)
David Tanswell (Figure 2 - from Palms & Cycads No. 52-53, Jul-Dec 1996)